Russia, France, Britain
The Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
By the end of the war 24 countries were involved including Australia, Japan and South Africa. Over 15 million dead.
WW1 considered the first Modern War
Optional link to weapons that were developed to effectively kill more people at a distance.
In the end, the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungarian Empire ceased to exist and the Soviet Union was born out of the Russian Empire. The League of Nations was created in order to prevent the outbreak of another global conflict. The way the end of the war was addressed actually created situations that ultimately led to World War II.
The Great Depression 1929—33
Really important lecture below on the WPA and art
Benito Mussolini – Italian
Francisco Franco (Spanish)
Picasso’s Guernica was an artistic response to a German attack on the town of Guernica which killed thousands of innocent civilians. More optional information at this site: https://www.pbs.org/treasuresoftheworld/guernica/gmain.html
Industrialization led to immigration from non-industrialized countries.
In predominately Protestant America there was an influx of Catholics
Other world religions were introduced through immigrant populations
America and Europe
This inspired a Christian fundamentalism movement
1900-1910 3 Inventions dominated the first decade
Optional posts below for further research on important inventions of the early 20th cen.:
Antoni Gaudi (Spanish) 1852-1926 Optional link
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bpu091Ue0zA (Video has musical accompaniment with no words spoken)
A style that was embraced in the first half of the 20th Century, that had wide acceptance by Western architects. The style relies upon slender steel posts and beams and concrete reinforced by steel.
Hitler closed the Bauhaus, Gropius moves to America to the Architecture Department at Harvard
The Bauhaus ideal was to interconnect art, science and technology so that no divisions between art, architecture and functional objects exists. Bauhaus artists were known for their furniture designs.
Le Corbusier (French) 1867-1959
Optional video looking at Savoye House in detail
Optional video — a tour of Le Corbusier’s many works
Frank Lloyd Wright (American) 1867-1959
Houses should blend with the terrain. Wrights houses are more personal, less sterile and more organic.
Fallingwater – optional
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZmEizHhrG8 (Video has nature sounds (water flowng, birds, etc.) with no words spoken)